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SUBMIT A PRSUBMIT AN ISSUElast edit: Jul 23, 2024

Register, Validate and Mine

To participate as a subnet validator or subnet miner, you must register first. Registration means registering your keys with your preferred subnet and purchasing a UID slot in that subnet.

No need to create a subnet

You do not have to create a subnet to mine or validate on the Bittensor network. See the Checklist for Validating and Mining for information on mining and validating on Bittensor.


Run the following command on your terminal, replacing the <your_preferred_netuid>, <my_coldkey>, <my_hotkey>. The <your_preferred_netuid> is the netuid of your preferred subnet.

btcli subnet register --netuid <your_preferred_netuid>  <my_coldkey> --wallet.hotkey <my_hotkey>

For example: For subnet 1 (netuid of 1)

btcli subnet register --netuid 1 test-coldkey --wallet.hotkey test-hotkey

Registering works like this:

  • When you run the above command, you have purchased a UID slot in the subnet of your choice.
  • Your hotkey, which is part of your wallet, becomes the holder of the UID slot. The terms "account" and "hotkey" are used synonymously.
Ownership belongs to a hotkey

Ownership belongs to a hotkey. Hence, for example, when you delegate your TAO to a subnet validator, you attach your delegated TAO to the hotkey of the subnet validator. See Delegation.

A hotkey can hold multiple UIDs across separate subnets. However, within one subnet, each UID must have a unique hotkey.

After registering your keys, you can become either a subnet miner or a subnet validator. Note that they have different requirements. See below.

Windows not supported

While wallet transactions like delegating, transfer, registering, and staking can be performed on a Windows machine using WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux), mining and validating are not recommended or supported on Windows machines.

Running a subnet validator

To become a subnet validator, you must:

  1. Register your keys to the subnet (as described above).
  2. Stake sufficient TAO on your hotkey to secure a validator permit.



See also Delegation

You stake by attaching TAO to your hotkey. Attaching TAO to your hotkey can be achieved in two ways:

Stake your own TAO

You can do this by staking your own TAO funds to your hotkey, which holds the UID in the subnet where you want to validate.

# Stake funds to your hotkey account within the subnet.
btcli stake add <my_coldkey> --wallet.hotkey <my_hotkey>


btcli stake add test-coldkey --wallet.hotkey test-hotkey

Attract delegated stake

You can also increase your stake by attracting delegated stake from the nominators. For this, you must first nominate your hotkey as a delegate and then advertise this hotkey. The nominators can then delegate their TAO to your hotkey.

# Nominate your hotkey as a delegate
btcli root nominate <my_coldkey> --wallet.hotkey <my_hotkey>


btcli root nominate test-coldkey --wallet.hotkey test-hotkey
See also

See Becoming a delegate for specific steps.

Validator permit

Only the top 64 validators, when ranked by their stake amount in any particular subnet, are considered to have a validator permit. Only these top 64 subnet validators with permits are considered active in the subnet.

Calculate TAO required

The amount of TAO needed to acquire a validator permit depends on how the other largest 64 wallets distribute TAO across themselves. You can calculate the minimum using bt.metagraph:

import bittensor as bt
subnet = bt.metagraph(1)
top_64_stake = sorted(subnet.S)[-64:]
print (f'Current requirement for validator permits based on the top 64 stake stands at {min(top_64_stake)} tao')

Check the permit status

Replace the string values for the name (<my_coldkey>) and hotkey (<my_validator_hotkey>) with your own. This information can be obtained from the metagraph using your UID.

import bittensor as bt
subnet = bt.metagraph(1)
wallet = bt.wallet( name = 'my_coldkey', hotkey = 'my_validator_hotkey' )
my_uid = subnet.hotkeys.index( wallet.hotkey.ss58_address )
print(f'Validator permit: {subnet.validator_permit(my_uid)}')

Running a subnet miner

After registering your key to the subnet, you can start mining. You can run your own miner or select miner modules that are provided in the subnet codebase.

Stake not needed to run a miner

Note that to run a miner, you do not need any stake. You only need to register.

If you plan to run an existing miner module, make sure to read the documentation for the specific subnet, including the node requirements for the miner you want to run. See Preparing for Subnet for more details.

Moving a subnet miner to a different machine

Once your subnet miner has begun mining, you can change it to a different machine, but proceed with caution.

Always minimize subnet miner downtime

Always minimize any downtime for your subnet miner. Missing validation requests can significantly damage the incentive and rewards of your subnet miner.

To move a subnet miner from one machine to another, follow the below guidelines in this order:

  1. Start the subnet miner on the new machine.
  2. Wait for the old miner to stop receiving requests from the subnet validators.
  3. Stop the old miner.

It can take the subnet validators some time to realize that the IP of the Axon for your subnet miner has changed.

Miner deregistration

A subnet miner can be deregistered if its performance is poor. Mining is competitive—and the UID slots are limited. Except in Subnet 1, all subnets have 256 UID slots per subnet. Of these 256 UID slots, a subnet can have a maximum of 64 subnet validator UIDs and 192 (i.e., 256-64) UIDs for subnet miners.

A poor performing miner occupying a UID risks being replaced by a newly registered miner who then occupies this UID. It works like this:

  • Every subnet has an immunity_period hyperparameter expressed in a number of blocks.
  • A subnet miner or a subnet validator at a UID (in that subnet) has the duration of immunity_period during which this miner or validator must improve its performance. When the immunity_period expires for a miner or a validator, they risk being deregistered, but only if their performance is the worst in the subnet. Specifically, if, at the end of its immunity_period, the emission to a subnet miner is the lowest in the subnet, then this subnet miner will be deregistered when a new registration request arrives.
  • The immunity_period starts when a subnet validator or a subnet miner is registered into the subnet.

See the below subnet miner timeline diagram illustrating how registration works:

Miner deregistrationMiner deregistration
  • Blocks are processed in the subtensor (Bittensor blockchain) every 12 seconds.
  • A subnet miner registers a hotkey and receives a UID—and its immunity period starts.
  • The subnet miner starts running and publishes its Axon's IP:PORT for the subnet validators.
  • The subnet validators refresh their metagraph and will be aware of the hotkey change on the UID and the new miner Axon's IP:PORT information.
  • The subnet validators send requests to the subnet miner's Axon and evaluate the responses, i.e., they participate in the subnet's incentive mechanism. Based on their responses, the subnet miner will receive an emission award.
  • While in immunity_period, the subnet miner slowly builds its emissions, starting with no history.
  • At the end of the immunity_period for this subnet miner, its performance is scored against all other subnet miners that were similarly out of their immunity_period in this subnet. If this subnet miner's performance (i.e., emission) is the lowest, then at the next registration request, this poor-performing subnet miner's UID will be transferred to the newly registered hotkey.
Subnet miner emission

As shown in the above picture, a subnet miner's emission may not always grow as a continuous graph. The emission may only be updated at the end of the tempo periods, or the subnet validators might have internal mechanisms that update faster than the subnet's tempo. For example, a subnet validator might discover new subnet miners and update its metagraph every 100 blocks to ensure that the metagraph will always have the latest information.

Inspecting UIDs

After you obtain a UID slot, you can view the status of your registered wallet by running the following:

btcli wallet overview --netuid

After providing your wallet name at the prompt, you will see the following output:

COLDKEYmy_coldkeyThe name of the coldkey associated with your slot.
HOTKEYmy_first_hotkeyThe name of the hotkey associated with your slot.
UID5The index of the uid out of available uids.
ACTIVETrueWhether or not the uid is considered active.
STAKE(τ)71.296The amount of stake in this wallet.
RANK0.0629This miner's absolute ranking according to validators on the network.
TRUST0.2629This miner's trust as a proportion of validators on the network.
CONSENSUS0.89This validator's aggregate consensus score.
INCENTIVE0.029This miner's incentive, TAO emission, is attained via mining.
DIVIDENDS0.001This validator's dividends, TAO emission, are attained via validating.
EMISSION29_340_153This miner's total emission in RAO ( 10-9 TAO ) per block.
VTRUST0.96936This validator's trust score as a validator.
VPERMIT*Whether this miner is considered active for validating on this subnetwork.
UPDATED43Blocks since this miner set weights on the chain.
AXON131.186.56.85:8091The entrypoint advertised by this miner on the bittensor blockchain.
HOTKEY_SS585F4tQyWr...The raw ss58 encoded the address of the miner's hotkey.

Meaning of ACTIVE

In the above table, the ACTIVE row applies only to UIDs that are subnet validators. It shows whether the UID is actively setting the weights within the activity_cutoff window. If the UID has not set weights on the blockchain for the activity_cutoff duration, then the Yuma Consensus will consider this subnet validator offline, i.e., turned off (False).

Checking the registration status

To check your UID's registration status, use any of the Python code fragments below. To use these code fragments:

  • Using Python interpreter: A straightforward way is to type "python" or "python3" on your macOS or Linux terminal, opening up a Python interpreter. Copy and paste the entire code fragment into it, hit "Return", and see the output.
  • Using Python binary: You can also use the Python binary. Copy the code fragment into a file, say, "", and run the command python3 or python on your terminal command line and see the output.

With SS58 hotkey

In the below code, replace the hotkey field value with the SS58 version of your hotkey:

import bittensor as bt
# Replace below with your SS58 hotkey
hotkey = "5HEo565WAy4Dbq3Sv271SAi7syBSofyfhhwRNjFNSM2gP9M2"
network = "finney"
sub = bt.subtensor(network)
print(f"Registration status for hotkey {hotkey} is: {sub.is_hotkey_registered(hotkey)}")

With SS58 hotkey and netuid

In the below code, replace the hotkey field value with the SS58 version of your hotkey and the netuid field value with the netuid of the subnet you have registered into:

import bittensor as bt
# Replace below with your SS58 hotkey
hotkey = "5HEo565WAy4Dbq3Sv271SAi7syBSofyfhhwRNjFNSM2gP9M2"
network = "finney"
netuid = 1 # subnet uid
sub = bt.subtensor(network)
mg = sub.metagraph(netuid)
if hotkey not in mg.hotkeys:
print(f"Hotkey {hotkey} deregistered")
print(f"Hotkey {hotkey} is registered")

With UID and SS58 hotkey

Additionally, if you also know your UID, replace uid value with your UID:

import bittensor as bt
# Replace below with your SS58 hotkey
hotkey = "5HEo565WAy4Dbq3Sv271SAi7syBSofyfhhwRNjFNSM2gP9M2"
network = "finney"
netuid = 1 # subnet uid
sub = bt.subtensor(network)
mg = sub.metagraph(netuid)
uid = 2 # Your UID
registered = mg.hotkeys[uid] == hotkey
if not registered:
print(f"Miner at uid {uid} not registered")
print(f"Miner at uid {uid} registered")